In the 1860s and 1870s, trance mediums were very popular. Spiritualism generally attracted female adherents, many who had strong interests in social justice. Many trance mediums delivered passionate speeches on abolitionism, temperance, and women's suffrage. Scholars have described Leonora Piper as one of the most famous trance mediums in the history of Spiritualism.
In 1954, the psychical researcher Rudolf Lambert published a report revealing details about a case of fraud that was covered up by many early members of the Institute Metapsychique International (IMI). Lambert who had studied Gustav Geley's files on the medium Eva Carrière discovered photographs depicting fraudulent ectoplasm taken by her companion Juliette Bisson. Various "materializations" were artificially attached to Eva's hair by wires. The discovery was never published by Geley. Eugéne Osty (the director of the institute) and members Jean Meyer, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Charles Richet all knew about the fraudulent photographs but were firm believers in mediumship phenomena so demanded the scandal be kept secret.
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Physical mediumship is defined as manipulation of energies and energy systems by spirits. This type of mediumship is claimed to involve perceptible manifestations, such as loud raps and noises, voices, materialized objects, apports, materialized spirit bodies, or body parts such as hands, legs and feet. The medium is used as a source of power for such spirit manifestations. By some accounts, this was achieved by using the energy or ectoplasm released by a medium, see spirit photography. The last physical medium to be tested by a committee from Scientific American was Mina Crandon in 1924.
Psychologists and researchers who studied Pearl Curran's automatic writings in the 1930s came to the conclusion Patience Worth was a fictitious creation of Curran. In 1931 George Valiantine was exposed as a fraud in the séance room as it was discovered that he produced fraudulent "spirit" fingerprints in wax. The "spirit" thumbprint that Valiantine claimed belonged to Arthur Conan Doyle was revealed to be the print of his big toe on his right foot. It was also revealed that Valiantine made some of the prints with his elbow.
Hmm. Believe Doug Ford, a politician with a high school degree, or George Akerlof Nobel Laureate EconomistRobert Aumann Nobel Laureate EconomistMartin Baily Former Chair, CEABen Bernanke Former Chair, Federal Reserve, Former Chair, CEAMichael Boskin Former Chair, CEAAngus Deaton Nobel Laureate EconomistPeter Diamond Nobel Laureate EconomistRobert Engle Nobel Laureate EconomistEugene Fama Nobel Laureate EconomistMartin Feldstein Former Chair, CEAJason Furman Former Chair, CEAAustan Goolsbee Former Chair, CEAAlan Greenspan Former Chair, Federal Reserve,Former Chair, CEALars Peter Hansen Nobel Laureate EconomistOliver Hart Nobel Laureate EconomistBengt Holmström Nobel Laureate EconomistGlenn Hubbard Former Chair, CEADaniel Kahneman Nobel Laureate EconomistAlan Krueger Former Chair, CEAFinn Kydland Nobel Laureate EconomistEdward Lazear Former Chair, CEARobert Lucas Nobel Laureate EconomistN. Gregory Mankiw Former Chair, CEAEric Maskin Nobel Laureate EconomistDaniel McFadden Nobel Laureate EconomistRobert Merton Nobel Laureate EconomistRoger Myerson Nobel Laureate EconomistEdmund Phelps Nobel Laureate EconomistChristina Romer Former Chair, CEAHarvey Rosen Former Chair, CEAAlvin Roth Nobel Laureate EconomistThomas Sargent Nobel Laureate EconomistMyron Scholes Nobel Laureate EconomistAmartya Sen Nobel Laureate EconomistWilliam Sharpe Nobel Laureate EconomistRobert Shiller Nobel Laureate
Illusionists, such as Joseph Rinn have staged 'fake' séances in which the sitters have claimed to have observed genuine supernatural phenomena. Albert Moll studied the psychology of séance sitters. According to (Wolffram, 2012) "[Moll] argued that the hypnotic atmosphere of the darkened séance room and the suggestive effect of the experimenters' social and scientific prestige could be used to explain why seemingly rational people vouchsafed occult phenomena." The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones in their book Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking (1989) wrote that spirits controls are the "products of the medium's own psychological dynamics."
The VERITAS Research Program of the Laboratory for Advances in Consciousness and Health in the Department of Psychology at the University of Arizona, run by the parapsychologist Gary Schwartz, was created primarily to test the hypothesis that the consciousness (or identity) of a person survives physical death. Schwartz claimed his experiments were indicative of survival, but do not yet provide conclusive proof. The experiments described by Schwartz have received criticism from the scientific community for being inadequately designed and using poor controls.
Let's Have A Party!! Sorry guys, JennieMarie No longer travels for readings, but Group Readings done at her office are just as fun! From as little as 3 to as many as 11 guests, JennieMarie gives group readings. These readings are done with everyone together in the same room and are $125 per person. This allows you and your family/friends to share in the experience at the same time, and is a total blast when a convocation of spirits pop in and out in real time.
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