My sister and I both realized our gifts and then discovered from speaking with our father that his father's brother was an acknowledged psychic in Rome, Italy. And then I also realized I could read hands and what I would see would surprise everyone and what I would predict would happen. I was really surprised at what I was able to read off the hands of my friends.

Wherever you are in New Zealand NZ:  Auckland, Wellington, Christchurch, Hamilton, Dunedin, Nelson, Queenstown, Rotorua, Tauranga, Palmerston North, Waikato, Taupo, North Shore, Paraparaumu, Kapiti, Otago, Canterbury, Invercargill, Blenheim, Nemson, Wairarapa, Napier, Whangarei, Taranaki, New Plymouth, Gisborne, Wanganui, Hawkes Bay, Lower Hutt, Hastings, Northland, Cambridge, Coromandel, you can call today on 0800300680 or 090030068 for a reading.


Gone are the crystal balls, dimmed lights and head scarfs (mainly!). Psychic readings have taken a 21st century leap and many of us use psychics, soul coaches and astrologers as part of our life enhancing tool kit. A good psychic reading can be a real soul rejuvenator. To get our mojo back, reconnect us to our inner wisdom and hopefully throw in a few unexpected revelations to turbo charge our way through life’s obstacles. If you’re thinking about having a psychic reading, it’s very important that you pick someone you trust.
The psychic, who'd had her hand on my phone screen the whole time, said she had felt it shaking and that it was probably a sign Emily was around (my friend had sent me two texts around that time). She also said she had been praying and crying with me too (I'm recovering from a cold and sniffled a few times to try to keep mucus from dripping out of my nose). She took the statue, closed her eyes and murmured for 30 seconds, then took the glass cube off the cup and lifted the cup. The dregs formed a vaguely heart-shaped smear on the saucer.

Some people worry that a psychic reading performed on the phone will not be as thorough or accurate as a face-to-face reading. Thankfully, these fears are completely unfounded. Phone psychic readings are every bit as good as an in-person reading, as each advisor is rated anonymously following each call. This guarantees that you are contacting a qualified & professional psychic guide for each call.
If you are looking to speak with a psychic, PsychicCenter makes it easy to connect with an experienced spiritual guide. Plus, we have a special offer to allow new customers to see what our service has to offer at a significantly discounted rate. All new customers can receive their first 10-minute psychic reading from PsychicCenter for the special rate of only $5.
Mina Crandon claimed to materialize a "spirit hand", but when examined by biologists the hand was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.[143] The German apport medium Heinrich Melzer was discovered to be a fraud in 1926. In a séance psychical researchers found that Melzer had small stones attached to the back of his ears by flesh coloured tape.[144] Psychical researchers who investigated the mediumship of Maria Silbert revealed that she used her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[145]
Frequently Asked Questions: Do you offer free phone, chat or email readings? No. However we do offer amazing new member specials starting at only $10.00. Do you offer love tarot readings? Our advisors are not reliant on the use of tools in their sessions due to their advanced intuition and psychic powers. However, tarot, crystal, astrology and other styles can be requested. Do you offer psychic love spells, palm readers or fortune tellers? No. We believe that only you have control of your path. Spells attempting to control others are an unethical, unreliable ritual and are often connect to psychic scams. We strive to provide professional services at affordable rates. Please check out our psychic reviews online today. Do you offer any famous psychics on your network? Yes. Many of our psychics are known nationwide for their unprecedented ability to forecast and have provided guidance to thousands of satisfied clients. Who is your best or top psychic? The best psychic for your needs can only be decided by you. However, please feel free to call our live member service agents and they will be happy to make a recommendation! Do you have psychic mediums or clairvoyants? Yes. We have experienced psychic advisors that offer all types of spiritual guidance.
Pro-Actively Monitoring: We are watchful of questionable practices at other Networks that have been subjected to media scrutiny. Your experience on our Network will be the best because we hire ONLY the Best Advisors. Our Network operates under the utmost reverence for clients &  advisors. On other networks a new trend has cropped up.  They offer what may seem as an enticing introduction rate.  However they avoid telling you that the rate thereafter will break your wallet! That is kind of shady and we don't work like that. 

Jennie Marie has the unique spiritual gift to receive messages from loved ones who have passed on from our world. Mediumship is a part of Jennie Marie's everyday life and meditation is a big factor in balancing her energy. The core of Jennie Marie's practice is communication; her readings are guided by an array of spiritual resources spanning God, past relatives, and guardian angels.
One day I travelled to a witch village in Sedona, Arizona. Once I entered a psychic boutique, the woman told me I was a gifted light bearer and that I would help people that would require my gifts. So I started from there, getting seriously into it and learning to understand what I could do with my gifts. My biggest rewards were knowing that I could help people understand their situation.

Clairvoyant psychics use their gifts to provide guidance on friendships and relationships. Because they receive unique visions of events, images and places, clairvoyant psychics are uniquely qualified to advise you if someone special is “The One” or if a relationship is destined to last. With guidance from a clairvoyant reader providing a love tarot reading, you may be better able to nurture positive connections and move on from relationships that are having a negative influence on your life.
A major advantage of live phone readings versus in-person appointments is that there is no chance that the reader can cheat. During a face-to-face session, a reader can gather many clues and insights about a person based on demeanour, clothing, jewellery, hair, make-up, and overall attitude and appearance. The psychic might draw conclusions about someone based on those clues and form the reading around those things.
Make no mistake: The Conservatives pretend to be 'for the people,' but that couldn't be further from the truth. This is still very much the party of Stephen Harper, Trudeau said.==========================================Meaning we have nothing to run on. So we are stoke fear and hatred and division in the hopes the uneducated liberals will still vote for looks. 

I'd heard about the job through a friend of mine, who worked in Human Resources for one of the most prominent phone psychic companies in the world. She knew that I'd learned to read tarot in college and that I often booked events and comedy clubs. Sometimes I was accurate, but mostly, I was entertaining. Once, at a New York Fashion Week party in SoHo, I read the cards for a nonbeliever who edited what many fancy fashion folk refer to as "the Bible." He was making fun of me when I leaned in and whispered, "Don't cheat on your wife."
1 Based on the level of net new purchases (purchases less credits) that are posted to your Gas Advantage Mastercard account in any monthly billing period, you will be entitled to a discount on each litre of gasoline or diesel fuel that is purchased for a motor vehicle at Canadian Tire Gas Bars during the following monthly billing period and that is charged to your Gas Advantage Mastercard. The discount that you receive in a billing period will be reduced to 2¢ per litre after you have made purchases of more than $500 for gasoline, diesel fuel or any other sundry items at Canadian Tire Gas Bars during that billing period using your Gas Advantage Mastercard. For complete program details please read the Canadian Tire Gas Advantage Mastercard Terms and conditions.
The article about this phenomenon in Encyclopædia Britannica places emphasis that "… one by one spiritual mediums were convicted of fraud, sometimes using the tricks borrowed from scenic "magicians" to convince their paranormal abilities". In the article it is also noted that "… the opening of the wide ranging fraud happening on spiritualistic sessions caused serious damage to reputation of the movement of a Spiritualism and in the USA pushed it on the public periphery".[205]
In 1991, Wendy Grossman in the New Scientist criticized the parapsychologist Stephen E. Braude for ignoring evidence of fraud in mediumship. According to Grossman "[Braude] accuses sceptics of ignoring the evidence he believes is solid, but himself ignores evidence that does not suit him. If a medium was caught cheating on some occasions, he says, the rest of that medium's phenomena were still genuine." Grossman came to the conclusion that Braude did not do proper research on the subject and should study "the art of conjuring."[180]
Psychic Phone Readings: Our advisors have spent years honing their skills in the art of spiritual intuitive communication. They are able to provide accurate psychic readings over the phone without the need for you to be physically in their presence. Additionally, we have recently introduced a feature where phone psychic discussions can be provided to you via email in an .mp3 format. With this great feature, you can relax in knowing that you will never forget the important advice that was conveyed in your session.
I was 13 when my mom dragged my brother and me to a "psychic." We were visiting family in Malaysia and somewhere amongst a few palm oil plantations was the house of an old woman who claimed to be able to channel Buddha. My mother was enthralled during the hour-long ordeal, during which the woman basically rolled her eyes often so the whites were showing, dropped her voice a few octaves, and made astonishingly mundane statements that could've applied to anyone (examples: our house had ants out front; my grandma was old and having some health problems). Combined with my love of Harry Houdini (who spent the last few years of his life debunking psychics and mediums) and teen angst that made me hate everything my parents liked, the experience left me convinced that psychics were con artists who separated vulnerable and desperate people from their cash in exchange for poor acting.

Your psychic reading can give you the chance to see if you are heading down the right track or if trouble is lurking around the corner. Psychics can reaffirm something you already know, or give you new insights and point of view. After your reading, you will have a greater sense of clarity and control over everything life has been sending your way.
Some people worry that a psychic reading performed on the phone will not be as thorough or accurate as a face-to-face reading. Thankfully, these fears are completely unfounded. Phone psychic readings are every bit as good as an in-person reading, as each advisor is rated anonymously following each call. This guarantees that you are contacting a qualified & professional psychic guide for each call.
“I first met Catharine a number of years ago for a reading. She described my husband and told me that he would be taking 4-6 weeks off work and relaxing. I have to admit I was skeptical…my husband is a complete workaholic and this was definitely not him! A few weeks later he hit his head on a staircase, ended up with a concussion and, yes, had to have 6 weeks off work to rest. I was hooked. Since then, she has described holidays that we would be taking, described my children’s mannerisms down to a tee and also work activities that I would be getting involved with. The rest of my family think that I’m strange for wanting to have readings like this…but it’s amazing how interested they all are when I get home to find out what she’s said and what’s going to happen in their lives. Thanks Catharine!

I'd heard about the job through a friend of mine, who worked in Human Resources for one of the most prominent phone psychic companies in the world. She knew that I'd learned to read tarot in college and that I often booked events and comedy clubs. Sometimes I was accurate, but mostly, I was entertaining. Once, at a New York Fashion Week party in SoHo, I read the cards for a nonbeliever who edited what many fancy fashion folk refer to as "the Bible." He was making fun of me when I leaned in and whispered, "Don't cheat on your wife." 

Some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]
People who are seeking advice when it comes to their careers often find it helpful to speak to clairvoyant psychics. A clairvoyant reader can use his or her gifts to tap into an informative vision of a person, place or object that can help you advance in your career, obtain a new position or even change career direction. You can use this vision to prepare yourself or focus your energies on the best possible outcome.
Maximum refund equal to last order total. All sales of distance energy healings, past life regressions, email and text readings, store products and astrology charts are final. The free will actions of you (and others) will affect your future. Therefore, the accuracy of predictions, timelines and success of distance energy healings cannot be guaranteed.
A very large part is played by fraud in spiritualistic practices, both in the physical and psychical, or automatic, phenomena, but especially in the former. The frequency with which mediums have been convicted of fraud has, indeed, induced many people to abandon the study of psychical research, judging the whole bulk of the phenomena to be fraudulently produced.[55]

In 1954, the psychical researcher Rudolf Lambert published a report revealing details about a case of fraud that was covered up by many early members of the Institute Metapsychique International (IMI).[163] Lambert who had studied Gustav Geley's files on the medium Eva Carrière discovered photographs depicting fraudulent ectoplasm taken by her companion Juliette Bisson.[163] Various "materializations" were artificially attached to Eva's hair by wires. The discovery was never published by Geley. Eugéne Osty (the director of the institute) and members Jean Meyer, Albert von Schrenck-Notzing and Charles Richet all knew about the fraudulent photographs but were firm believers in mediumship phenomena so demanded the scandal be kept secret.[163]


Some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]
In 1876, William Eglinton was exposed as a fraud when the psychical researcher Thomas Colley seized a "spirit" materialization in his séance and cut off a portion of its cloak. It was discovered that the cut piece matched a cloth found in Eglinton's suitcase.[79] Colley also pulled the beard off the materialization and it was revealed to be a fake, the same as another one found in the suitcase of Eglinton.[80] In 1880 in a séance a spirit named "Yohlande" materialized, a sitter grabbed it and was revealed to be the medium Mme. d'Esperance herself.[81]
In March 1902 in Berlin, police officers interrupted a séance of the German apport medium Frau Anna Rothe. Her hands were grabbed and she was wrestled to the ground. A female police assistant physically examined Rothe and discovered 157 flowers as well as oranges and lemons hidden in her petticoat. She was arrested and charged with fraud.[102] Another apport medium Hilda Lewis known as the "flower medium" confessed to fraud.[103]
A memory card is the crucial device needed to save photos, video, and other files, on your camera, camcorder, smartphone, or other device. Your card will store and protect your data until you have a chance to plug the card into a card reader. A card reader is typically connected via USB to your computer and allows you to download data from the memory card, so that you can view and edit your work.
Maximum refund equal to last order total. All sales of distance energy healings, past life regressions, email and text readings, store products and astrology charts are final. The free will actions of you (and others) will affect your future. Therefore, the accuracy of predictions, timelines and success of distance energy healings cannot be guaranteed.
If you’re reading this because you’re thinking of having a psychic reading and you aren’t sure which way to go, it can seem strange that someone giving a psychic reading over the phone can be as accurate as someone sitting right in front of you.  Especially if you’re a fan of Tarot and thinking, well, hang on.  Don’t I need to shuffle the cards as it’s my reading?
^ Joseph Jastrow. (1935). Patience Worth: An Alter Ego in Wish and Wisdom: Episodes in the Vagaries of Belief. D. Appleton-Century Company. pp. 78–92. Lyon Sprague de Camp. (1966). Spirits, Stars, and Spells. New York: Canaveral. p. 247. Robert Goldenson. (1973). Mysteries of the Mind: The Drama of Human Behavior. Doubleday. pp. 44–53. Milbourne Christopher. (1970). ESP, Seers and Psychics. New York: Crowell. pp. 128–29
In 1960, psychic investigator Andrija Puharich and Tom O'Neill, publisher of the Spiritualist magazine Psychic Observer, arranged to film two seances at Camp Chesterfield, Indiana using infrared film, intending to procure scientific proof of spirit materializations. The medium was shown the camera beforehand, and was aware that she was being filmed. However, the film revealed obvious fraud on the part of the medium and her cabinet assistant. The exposé was published in the 10 July 1960 issue of the Psychic Observer.[168]:96–97
Keep in mind that “honest and direct” is not the same as “cold and cruel.” Your psychic advisor shouldn’t make you feel that he or she judges you negatively because of difficult situations in your life. A good psychic advisor will make sure you understand any potential problems without belittling you. It is unlikely that you will encounter an unkind psychic advisor:  

I don't think any of these women intentionally bullshitted me. I'm sure they believe they possess abilities to communicate with the dead and tap into people's lives. But, again, out of four psychics—people who claim to have special powers to know greater truths—not one noticed that the very premise I approached them on was phoney. Maybe it's because I sprung for the cheaper ones. Maybe it's because I found them on Kijiji. Maybe I'm fantastic enough of a liar that, like Psychic Three said, I managed to conjure up enough spiritual energy to bring Emily into existence. (I guess there's also the possibility that they all knew I was lying but didn't care because I was paying them.) Or maybe psychic powers don't really exist.

A barcode is a series of alternating dark and light stripes that are read by an optical scanner. The organization and width of the lines is determined by the bar code protocol selected. There are many different protocols, such as the prevalent Code 39.[3] Sometimes the digits represented by the dark and light bars are also printed to allow people to read the number without an optical reader.


To purchase your 30 minute psychic phone reading click the add to cart button above and on the PayPal payment notes please enter your UK phone number and preferred time to connect (mobile phone numbers are ok), if you are overseas please add your Skype name – please note I only use audio on Skype and not the webcam. If you do not see the notes section on PayPal then please reply to your purchase email or use this contact form to send me your phone number/Skype. I will then email you to arrange a time for your psychic phone reading. I am based in the UK so please consider our time difference before purchasing – I work evenings and some Saturday mornings. If you are outside of the UK please check the time difference here.
5/When it comes to your psychic reader, you might have already found a psychic reader you have a good professional relationship with.  If not, most telephone psychic companies have profiles on each of their psychic readers where you can see a bit more information about them and also see what other people who have had a psychic reading with them have said.
2. Let the psychic guide the session. You’re paying a professional psychic for their time; allow them to do their job and lead the discussion where it needs to go. A good psychic should do most of the talking and asking you to validate or confirm the impressions they receive. You will likely frustrate an authentic psychic with your emotional overload by going off on tangents or venting your life story. And you’ll be giving a fraudulent psychic way too much information that can be manipulated to their advantage. When in doubt, politely ask the psychic if you may elaborate to underscore a point.

“Hi Catharine, just wanted to give you an update on my last reading with you back in June. I’m always amazed at how accurate you are with descriptions of people coming into my life. In our session you mentioned there is a man with a shaved head and dark eyes will be helping me out with my career in 3D. Well a couple months later. I did my internship with an owner with that description. A week ago (a month after my internship was finished) he gave me a job offer! I will be making an appointment you again very soon for another reading 🙂
There are two types of smart cards: contact and contactless. Both have an embedded microprocessor and memory. The smart card differs from the proximity card in that the microchip in the proximity card has only one function: to provide the reader with the card's identification number. The processor on the smart card has an embedded operating system and can handle multiple applications such as a cash card, a pre-paid membership card, or an access control card.
The psychic guides on PsychicCenter offer a variety of ways for you to gain insight into your past, present, and future. Inside our exclusive community, you will find tarot readers, psychic mediums, astrologers, relationship experts, and other types of talented psychics. Connect with one of our third-party vetted and experienced psychic guides by phone today to start finding answers to your questions about love, life, family, and work.
Illusionists, such as Joseph Rinn have staged 'fake' séances in which the sitters have claimed to have observed genuine supernatural phenomena.[44] Albert Moll studied the psychology of séance sitters. According to (Wolffram, 2012) "[Moll] argued that the hypnotic atmosphere of the darkened séance room and the suggestive effect of the experimenters' social and scientific prestige could be used to explain why seemingly rational people vouchsafed occult phenomena."[45] The psychologists Leonard Zusne and Warren Jones in their book Anomalistic Psychology: A Study of Magical Thinking (1989) wrote that spirits controls are the "products of the medium's own psychological dynamics."[46]

Biometric templates may be stored in the memory of readers, limiting the number of users by the reader memory size (there are reader models that have been manufactured with a storage capacity of up to 50,000 templates). User templates may also be stored in the memory of the smart card, thereby removing all limits to the number of system users (finger-only identification is not possible with this technology), or a central server PC can act as the template host. For systems where a central server is employed, known as "server-based verification", readers first read the biometric data of the user and then forward it to the main computer for processing. Server-based systems support a large number of users but are dependent on the reliability of the central server, as well as communication lines.


The British medium William Roy earned over £50,000 from his séance sitters. He confessed to fraud in 1958 revealing the microphone and trick-apparatus that he had used.[166] The automatic writings of the Irish medium Geraldine Cummins were analyzed by psychical researchers in the 1960s and they revealed that she worked as a cataloguer at the National Library of Ireland and took information from various books that would appear in her automatic writings about ancient history.[167] 

Phone psychic readings with tarot cards can be a lot of fun, but the reader wont always be a fully developed psychic. Read brand descriptions carefully. A purely academic tarot reader will usually announce that they dont use intuition to read the cards of their clients. Readings with a non-intuitive reader can be just as accurate as readings with a psychic reader, fortunately.

"The picture reading shows me what goes on in the past life and in this life ... So if it shows me she was your guardian angel at one point, she was a guardian angel," she said. She added that the reading wasn't accurate because I had come in with the intention to trick, that the energy I came in with was one about my sister which is what she picked up on, that the whole thing wasn't very "civilized" of me and that she'd be calling other psychics and warning them about me. She told me she's been tested by people who declared their intentions and passed their tests, and offered to give me a reading that would reveal secrets about me that not even my closest friends know. I declined.
Mina Crandon claimed to materialize a "spirit hand", but when examined by biologists the hand was discovered to be made from a piece of carved animal liver.[143] The German apport medium Heinrich Melzer was discovered to be a fraud in 1926. In a séance psychical researchers found that Melzer had small stones attached to the back of his ears by flesh coloured tape.[144] Psychical researchers who investigated the mediumship of Maria Silbert revealed that she used her feet and toes to move objects in the séance room.[145]
“Hi Catharine, just wanted to give you an update on my last reading with you back in June. I’m always amazed at how accurate you are with descriptions of people coming into my life. In our session you mentioned there is a man with a shaved head and dark eyes will be helping me out with my career in 3D. Well a couple months later. I did my internship with an owner with that description. A week ago (a month after my internship was finished) he gave me a job offer! I will be making an appointment you again very soon for another reading 🙂
^ God's World: A Treatise on Spiritualism Founded on Transcripts of Shorthand Notes Taken Down, Over a Period of Five Years, in the Seance-Room of the William T. Stead Memorial Center (a Religious Body Incorporated Under the Statutes of the State of Illinois), Mrs. Cecil M. Cook, Medium and Pastor. Compiled and Written by Lloyd Kenyon Jones. Chicago, Ill.: The William T. Stead Memorial Center, 1919.
An in-depth 20-minute reading with one of our psychic readers, charged to your credit/debit card, costs £32.95. Our psychic readers will always tell you at the end of the 20 minutes and should you wish to extend the telephone call extra minutes are charged at £1.50 per minute. You will never be kept on the phone longer than you want to be and you will know exactly how much you are spending.
Wiegand card technology is a patented technology using embedded ferromagnetic wires strategically positioned to create a unique pattern that generates the identification number. Like magnetic stripe or barcode technology, this card must be swiped through a reader to be read. Unlike the other technologies, the identification media is embedded in the card and not susceptible to wear. This technology once gained popularity because it is difficult to duplicate, creating a high perception of security. This technology is being replaced by proximity cards, however, because of the limited source of supply, the relatively better tamper resistance of proximity readers, and the convenience of the touch-less functionality in proximity readers.
The word clairvoyance means “to see clearly.” This does not refer to the sense of sight, but rather to seeing with what some call the “inner eye” or “third eye.” Others may refer to this ability as a “sixth sense.” What’s common to all of these terms and definitions is that they refer to an ability to perceive hidden truths. Clairvoyant psychics have the ability to tap into energies that the average person is not able to perceive. For this reason, many people turn to clairvoyants for guidance in various areas of their lives.
The psychical researchers Eric Dingwall and Harry Price re-published an anonymous work written by a former medium entitled Revelations of a Spirit Medium (1922) which exposed the tricks of mediumship and the fraudulent methods of producing "spirit hands".[132] Originally all the copies of the book were bought up by spiritualists and deliberately destroyed.[133] In 1923, the magician Carlos María de Heredia revealed how fake spirit hands could be made by using a rubber glove, paraffin and a jar of cold water.[134]
or 0330 114 0121 Calls to 0800 are free. First time caller offer: 10 mins for £10! PAY VIA CARD 0488 882 770 Calls will be charged at the standard carrier rate. First time caller offer: 10 mins for $15! PAY VIA CARD 0818 905 855 Calls charged at standard network rate. Mobiles vary. First time caller offer: 10 mins for €10, 20 mins for €35! CALL MY PSYCHICS 0907 995 0123 Calls cost £1.50/min + your phone company's access charge. CALL MY PSYCHICS 1902 220 021 $3.96 per min inc GST. Mobiles may be higher CALL MY PSYCHICS 1570 444 234 Calls cost €1.75/min + your phone company's access charge. CALL MY PSYCHICS 1 844 249 4500 Call for free! First time caller offer: 10 mins for $15! TEXT 'SALLY' +

Apart from the networks above, AskNow is also a place delivering top quality readings at a very affordable price. All clients will receive the 100% money back guarantee if feeling unpleased with the psychic connection. Simply contact the customer service and you’ll instantly get the credit for another reading. If you are new to this site, you will receive many best deals there once signed up – for example, a 30 minute reading for only $30 plus 5 free minutes.

Some scientists of the period who investigated spiritualism also became converts. They included chemist Robert Hare, physicist William Crookes (1832–1919) and evolutionary biologist Alfred Russel Wallace (1823–1913).[13][14] Nobel laureate Pierre Curie took a very serious scientific interest in the work of medium Eusapia Palladino.[15] Other prominent adherents included journalist and pacifist William T. Stead (1849–1912)[16] and physician and author Arthur Conan Doyle (1859–1930).[17]
Magicians have a long history of exposing the fraudulent methods of mediumship. Early debunkers included Chung Ling Soo, Henry Evans and Julien Proskauer.[59] Later magicians to reveal fraud were Joseph Dunninger, Harry Houdini and Joseph Rinn. Rose Mackenberg, a private investigator who worked with Houdini during the 1920s, was among the most prominent debunkers of psychic fraud during the mid-20th century.[60] 
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